28. 11. 2006 Types of lexical information: Pronunciation


28. 11. 2006 Types of lexical information: Pronunciation

Surface structure

  • Two levels

  • linguistic description ( -> Metalanguage)

  • units of language ( -> Objectlanguage)


Surface structure of ...

  • Dictionaries

  • metalanguage : the typography and layout of a book, hypertext, ...

  • Words in dictionaries

  • object language: spelling, pronunciation

Types of lexical information: Pronunciation

[Model of types of lexical information]

Redering structures

  • Pronunciation rules -> acoustic modality

  • Spelling -> visual modality

  • Sound- Spelling rules -> Inter- modality- conversion

Representation of sounds- prosodic hierarchy

  • phonemes

  • function: „smallest word – distinguishing segment“

  • internal structure: “configuations of distinctive phonetic features”

  • external structure (see syllables)

  • rendering: “contextual variants”, “allophones”

  • syllables

  • function: “word distinguishing phoneme configurations”

  • internal structure: “configurations of sequential features (consonantal, vocalic; voiced, unvoiced; ...) and simultaneous features (tone, accent)

  • external structure (word)

  • rendering: a function of the rendering of phonemes

Basics of English Syllable Structure

  • Basic syllable structure

  • CCCVVCCC, e.g. /streIndZ/ - but affricates /dZ/, count as 1 phoneme, though phonetically they have 2 parts.

  • More detailed syllable structure as a map

  • this kind of map is sometimes called a transition network or a state diagramme - each transition from one circle/node/state describes the correct position of one phoneme.


  • There are several ways of defining phonemes, depending on which of the four sign components is focussed

  1. the minimal word-distinguishing sound segment (based on the contrastive function of phonemes)

  2. The smallest unit of a syllable (based on external sound structure)

  3. Consists of distinctive features (based on the internal sound structure)

  4. Consists of a set of allophones (based on the rendering of phonemes)

Description of sounds

  • For general pronunciation representation in the lexicon -> phonemic transcription

  • just enough phonetic detail to distinguish words

  • For detailed representation of speech pronunciation -> phonetic transcription

  • based on articulatory phonetics (about speech production)

  • remember the other dimensions of speech description:

  • acoustic phonetics (about speech wave transmission)

  • auditory phonetics (about speech perception)

Swallowing“ Characters

  • chbimmim“ -> „Ich bin mit dem“ Auto gefahren

  • you actually don't swallow characters, your tongue moves faster and has no time to pronounce some letters, therefore the sentence is reduced and some characters are left out


Spelling- to- Sound rules

  • Spelling: VISUAL modality

  • ghoti ... /fish/ -> „gh“ = „f“ in „tough“ , „o“ = „i“ like in „women“ and „ti“ = „sh“ like in „nation“

  • i before e except after c”, consonant doubling

  • Graphemes:

  • character combination corresponding to a phoneme

  • Transcribe phonemically (without stress marks):

  • If the bread dough is tough, knead it roughly, even though when you’re through you’ll have had enough and will throw it at the ceiling.

  • /If D@ brEd d@U: Iz tVf ni:d It rVfli: i:v@n D@U: wEn ju@ Tru: ju:l @v h{d InVf @nd wIl Tr@U It {t D@ si:lIN/

  • Task

  • make a list of 5 spelling rules


  • make a list of 5 main spelling problems

      Basic Rules

Remember this poem to decide if a word should be spelled ie or ei.

Put i before e

Except after c

Or when it sounds like a

As in neighbor or neigh.


Examples for line 1:






Examples for line 2:





Examples for line 3:





Some Exceptions:









      Follow these steps to decide if a final consonant needs to be doubled when a suffix

    1. or verb ending is added.

      • If the word is one syllable or is stressed on the last syllable (Say the word out loud

      • to determine stress.)

      • And has a single final consonant

      • And that single final consonant is preceded by a single vowel

      • And the suffix begins with a vowel

      • Then double the final consonant.

      • Example: Control + able

      • The stress is on the last syllable – trol

      • There is a single final consonant - l

      • The final consonant has a vowel before it - o

      • The suffix, able, begins with a vowel
        Therefore, you double the l before adding the suffix.

      • Write controllable


      • Example: enter + ing

      • The stress is on the first syllable - en - not the last

      • Therefore, you do not double the final consonant.

      • Write entering.


      • How to handle a final e when adding a suffix or verb ending.

      • If the suffix or verb ending begins with a vowel, drop the final e.



amuse + ing = amusing



creative + ity = creativity






        If the suffix or verb ending begins with a consonant, keep the final e.



measure + ment = measurement



definite + ly = definitely






belief = beliefs



half = halves

      • Most nouns ending in o add s. However, some add es.

        There is no rule to follow here.



studio = studios



cargo = cargoes


( )

5. 12. 2006 Types of lexical information: morphology ( inflection and word formation)


5. 12. 2006 Types of lexical information: morphology ( inflection and word formation)


  • structure of words

  • inflect to their environment

  • example „this person – these people“

Word formation

  • creativity how words are constructed

  • Why?

    -> new developments in science ( Finland: new handy telefone ( handy to carry/ use)

    -> German word „Handy&ldquo

  • Who?

  • Scientists

  • Engineers

  • Product branding companies

  • Poets

  • Everybody else


  • inventing new words to fit new products

  • Product branding companies

  • lexicon branding „Sausalito“ ( most famous one , „Pentium&ldquo

  • the language of advertising

  • swiffer“: sweep swiftly

Jabbawocky ( Alice through the looking glass by Lewis Carroll)

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The frumious Bandersnatch!"

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought-

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought.

And, as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came!

One, two! One, two! And through and


The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

A frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!"

He chortled in his joy.

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

  • Galumphing

  • galopping

  • triumphing

  • jumping

  • creation of new basic simple words

  • NOT putting two words together

  • only bits of words

  • onomatopeia ( snicker- snack)

  • redublication

  • repitition

  • German translation:

    • Der Zipferlake von Christian Enzensberger Verdaustig war's und glasse Wieben
    rotterten gorkicht im Gemank; Gar elump war der Pluckerwank, Und die gabben Schweisel frieben. »Hab acht vorm Zipferlak, mein Kind! Sein Maul ist beiß, sein Griff ist bohr! Vorm Fliegelflagel sieh dich vor, Dem mampfen Schnatterrind!« Er zückt' sein scharfbefifftes Schwert, Den Feind zu futzen ohne Saum; Und lehnt' sich an den Dudelbaum, Und stand da lang in sich gekehrt. In sich gekeimt, so stand er hier, Da kam verschnoff der Zipferlak Mit Flammenlefze angewackt Und gurgt in seiner Gier! Mit eins! Mit zwei! und bis aufs Bein! Die biffe Klinge ritscheropf! Trennt er vom Hals den toten Kopf, Und wichernd springt er heim. »Vom Zipferlak hast uns befreit? Komm an mein Herz, aromer Sohn! O blumer Tag! O schlusse Fron!« So kröpfte er vor Freud. Verdaustig war's und glasse Wieben rotterten gorkicht im Gemank; Gar elump war der Pluckerwank, Und die gabben Schweisel frieben.

    Morphological structure

    Branches of morphology


    • inflection -> table – tables

    • word formation

    • derivation

    • compounding

    paradigmatic relations

    • relation of similarity and difference

    • classification

    • opposites

    • ryme ( partly similar)

    syntacmatic relations

    • composition of relation

    • combinatory

    • put small pieces together to make a big one

    • combine

    A paradigmatic lexical relation is a culturally determined pattern of association between lexical units that

    • share one or more core semantic components

    • belong to the same lexical category

    • fill the same syntactic position in a syntactic construction, and

    • have the same semantic function.

    Examples: English


    Here is a table showing some common paradigmatic lexical relations in English with example sets and underlying structure:




    Lexical relation

    Example set

    Underlying structure



    A "happy" synonym set: {happy, joyful, glad}

    simple set

    Scalar property

    A temperature set: {cold, cool, lukewarm, warm, hot}



    A social relation set: {(student, teacher), (patient, doctor)}

    set of pairs



    • dog

      • collie

      • terrier

    • cat

      • Persian

      • Siamese














    Reminder: Signs

    DIALOGUE social relation


    TEXT →description


    SENTENCE →state/ event

    accent, intonation

    WORD →entity, prop

    phonemes, stress

    Morphology sketch


    • function ( external structure)

    • marks the relation of words to their context

    • no change in the basic meaning of words

    • form ( internal structure)

    • affix ( prefix, suffix, infix), superfix, stem vowel change

    Word formation

    • function ( external structure)

    • creation of new words / parts of speech / meanings

    • in principle infinite extendability of the lexicon

    • Form (internal structure)

    • Root/morpheme creation (blending, abbreviation, ...)

    • Derivation: 1 stem + affix (prefix, suffix, infix), superfix, vowel change

    • Compounding: 2 stems, perhaps with interfix or inflection-like affix

    Internal structure of words

    • smallest word parts : morphemes

    • grammatical morphemes ( structural morpheme)

    • closed set

    • free: prepositions, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions

    • bound: affixes, suffixes

    • lexical morphemes ( content morpheme, root)

    • open set

    Morphemes and allomorphs

12.12.06 Lexical databases- toolbox


12. 12. 06 Lexical Databases: Toolbox

Presentation on „Toolbox“ by Sascha Griffith

  • a computational tool developed by the SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics)

  • desined for field work purpose

  • a database application that interlinearizes, analyses and stores text and can convert this into an alphabetically ordered dictionary

  • was called „Shoebox“

  • eases work of linguist

    SIL lists Toolbox

    Toolbox' main functions are

    • viewing and searching ( click on arrows on the top left of the page, click on „database“ and „search“ to search)

    • browsing ( Alt + R)

    • editing ( „Edit“ , „Field&ldquo

    • sorting ( „Database“ , „Sorting“, sorting by field)

    To get the software

    Entering text

    • select text in source document

    • Press ctrl-c

    • Go to text row (tx) and paste (ctrl-v) the text into the right column

    • Enter the title of the text into text identification

    • Enter an abbreviation of the title into reference line (the references can later be automatically numbered)

    • copy and paste selected text passages into Toolbox

    • When the text is added one should press enter so that ft (free translation) reappears

    • After entering the text press Alt-I (mb, ge & ps will reappear.

    • Sometimes Toolbox does not recognize morphemes, then you have to add them by leaving a space between them and add them to the dictionary

    Making an entry

    • Mark a word in the line mb

    • Click on this word using the right mouse button

    • Click 'Insert'

    • Enter the lexical properties into the dictionary field at the bottom of the screen

    Wordlist, Concordance and dictionary

    • The dictionary is entered manually as shown

    • A wordlist can be produced using the menu 'tools' and in this menu 'wordlist' (or by pressing alt-l)

    • A concordance can be produced can be produced by using the menu 'tools' and in this menu 'concordance' (or by pressing ctrl-l)

    • A new text window can be added into a new text file by choosing the menu 'database' and where one will find 'new record'

    Additional Information

    • you can export Toolbox data into a word processor file

    • To add a new data category (e.g. the pronunciation) click on the left column in the text window and press ctrl-e.


    Note on dictionary making

    • What is seen in the left column of the text window is called data categories (or datcats), which are called fields in Toolbox, what can be seen on the right side is (language) data or records as Toolbox refers to them. The fields represent the microstructure of a dictionary.

    How are words built?


    • Inflection: marks the syntagmatic relation of words to their contexts

    • syntactic context: agreement in person, number, case

    • situational context: temporal relations, quantity

    • form: stem + affix

    • root/ morpheme creation: creates new POS ( parts of speech) and meaning

    • parts of 2 or more existing stems ( „galumph&ldquo

    • -> Jabbawocky

    • Derivation: creates new part of speech

    • stem + affix

    • Compounding: creates meanings and sometimes new POS

    • at least 2 existing stems

    Internal structure of words

    English words consist of a STEM and an INFLECTION

    • STEM has a lexical meaning

    • INFLECTION has a grammatical meaning

    Stems of English words are ...

    • simple ( roots, lexical morphemes) -> boy, table, chair, red

    • complex, at least one of the following

    • Derivations ( a stem and a derivational affix) -> re- write

    • Compounds ( a stem plus another stem) -> table- cloth

    • Both ( synthetic compound) ( derivation plus a stem) -> bus driver

    Words are signs

    • inflected word -> phrase semantics, stress

    • compound word -> lexical semantics, stress ( „Hyde 'Park&ldquo

    • derived word -> lexical semantics, stress

    • morpheme -> lexical semantics, phonemes, stress


    A WORD is

    • a stem plus an inflection


    A STEM is either

    • a root (lexical morpheme) or

    • a derived stem ( stem plus affix) (derivation) or

    • a compound stem (stem plus stem) ( compounding)

    and nothing else is a stem ( recursive definition)

    A DERIVED STEM is either

    • a root ( zero derivation)

    • or a derived stem with an affix

    and nothing else is a derived stem


    • a derived stem or a word + a derived stem or a word

    • a compound + a compound stem

    and nothing else is a compound stem