19. 12. 2006 Grammar (syntax) - External Structure

 

19. 12. 2006 Types of lexical information: Grammar (syntax) – External structure



Syntax

  • Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syntax 2.1.07) : In linguistics, syntax is the study of the rules, or "patterned relations", that govern the way words combine to form phrases and phrases combine to form sentences. The word originates from the Greek words συν (syn), meaning "co-" or "together", and τάξις (táxis), meaning "sequence, order, or arrangement". The combinatory behavior of words is governed to a first approximation by their part of speech.

  • Syntax is the structure of sentences

  • Syntax= Grammar= the order of words in a sentence



Categories

  • Parts of speech (POS)

  • subcategories

  • phrasal categories



Main relations

  • structural relations

  • paradigmatic

  • syntagmatic

  • semiotic relations

  • interpretation

  • realisation



Semiotics





Words, Context, External Structure

Task: Identify the POS of each word in this text



Mr Bush( noun, name) accepted(verb, past tense) Mr Rumsfeld's (noun, name) resignation(abstract noun) after(preposition, defining the order) November(abstract noun) mid-elections(compound noun) in( preposition, defining the place) which( pronoun) the( definite article) Republicans( noun, name) lost(verb, past tense) control(abstract noun) of( preposition, belonging) both(pronoun, quantifier) the(definite article) House of Representatives( compound noun) and(conjunction, connection) the( definite article) Senate(noun). Public(adjective) discontent(abstract noun) over( preposition) the( definite article) conduct(abstract noun) of( preposition) the(definite article) Iraq war ( compound noun) was seen(verb, auxiliar verb + lexical verb) as(conjunction) a(indefinite article) major(adjective) factor(noun) in(preposition, place, location) the(definite article) defeat (abstract noun).





Determiners

  • Articles ( definite „the“ / indefinite „a(n)&ldquo: define the relation between the reader and the writer, if a writer uses „the“, he or she expects the reader to know what he is writing about, either because it is obvious or because it was mentioned before

  • Possessives ( my, your, his, her, its, our, their): first element in nominal expressions

  • Demonstratives ( proximal (this) / distal (that) )

  • Quantifiers

  • cardinal numbers ( one, two, ...)

  • extencial: some (not many, depends on the set you are talking about), several ( 2 < several< 10), few, many

  • dual: both ( 2)

  • universal: each ( individually), every, all



Adjectives

  • scalar ( small, big, ...): you can say „very“ with scalar adjectives ( very small, very big)

  • polar ( dead, pregnant, ...): you normally cannot say „very“ with polar adjectives or it would have a special meaning ( „ very pregnant“: she has a very huge stomach)

  • appraisive ( good, wonderful, ...): you might use them with „very“ but then it might sound exaggerated or even ironic, no descriptive adjectives (only an attitude),

  • ordinal ( first, second, ...)

  • adverbs of degree ( can be used with scalar adjectives): very, highly, extremely, incredibly, ...





Nouns

  • Proper nouns (names): Places, personal, product, ...

  • Common nouns: Countable nouns ( knife, fork, spoon, ...), uncountable nouns (bread ( a slice of bread), butter (a piece of butter), jam ( a spoonful of jam))

Task: What happens when you count „uncountable“ nouns

  • when you order something ( „two teas please&ldquo

  • when you mean different types of bread ( brown bread, toast, ...)





Pronouns

  • personal pronouns ( I / me, you, he / him, ...)

  • possessive pronouns ( mine, yours, his, ...)

  • demonstrative pronouns ( this ( proximal), that (distal))

  • quantifier pronouns ( cardinal numbers ( one, two, ...), existential (some, several, few, ...), dual (both), universal ( every, each, ...)

  • relative pronouns (like conjunctions)







Verbs



Main Verbs

  • finite forms ( person, number, tense)

  • non- finite forms ( infinitives, participles)



Periphrastic Verbs (auxiliary verb + non- finite main verb)

  • modal ( can, will, ...)

  • aspectual ( be + prespart (continous), have + pastpart ( perfect))

  • passive: be + pastpart



It might have been being repaired“

  • might : modal verb ( -> attitude)

  • have: auxiliary verb

  • been: past participle ( have + been = present perfect)

  • being: continuous

  • repaired: main verb ( being + repaired= present perfect continuous)





Adverbs

  • Deictic

  • Time

  • Place

  • Direction

  • Manner

  • Degree



Deictic ( Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deictic_expression ) 3.1.07)

  • In linguistics, a deictic expression is an expression that refers to the personal, temporal, or spatial aspect of an utterance, and whose meaning therefore depends on the context in which it is used



Prepositions

  • make nominal expressions into adverbial expressions

  • categories: see adverbs



Task: What is the meaning of the preposition „of“ ?

  • The „Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English“, 7th edition, distinguishes between 13 (!) different meanings for the word „of“.

  • belonging to sb „the paintings of Monet“

  • belonging to sth, being part of sth „ the director of the company“

  • coming from a particular background „ the people of Wales“

  • concerning or showing sth/ sb „ a photo of my dog“

  • used to say what sb/ sth is, consists of „ the city of Dublin“

  • used with measurements and expressions of time „2 kilos of potatoes“

  • used to show that sth/ sb belongs to a group „some of his friends“

  • used to show the preposition of sth/ sb in place or time „ just north of Detroit“

  • used after nouns formed from verbs „the arrival of the police“

  • used after some verbs before mentioning sth/ sb in volved in the action „ He was cleared of all blame“

  • used after some adjectives before mentioning sb/ sth that a feeling relates to „to be proud of sth“

  • used to give your on sb' s behaviour „it was kind of you to offer“

  • used when one noun describes a second one „ Where's that idiot of a boy?“



Construct prepositional phrases corresponding to the types of adverbs

  • Deictic ( here, there, now, then): „

  • Time: „ after the match“ ,

  • Place: „above the house“, „a fence around the garden“, „the fox escaped into his hole“

  • Direction: „he hit against his leg“

  • Manner: „ without a trace“ , „like any other day“, „with great enthusiasm“

  • Degree: „the water is warm enough for swimming“



Conjunctions

  • co- ordinating conjunctions ( and, but)

  • sub- ordinating conjunctions: make sentences (clauses) into adjective-like noun modifiers

  • basically: make sentence (clauses) into adverb-like verb modifiers



Task: Find examples of conjunctions of each type





Interjections

  • Interjections link parts of dialogues together ( Hi, ehh, huh)

  • They may also be expressions of subjective reactions ( Ouch, wow)



Task: Find 5 more interjections ( 3.1.07 http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_interjections )

  • ay, aye

  • come on

  • damn

  • gosh

  • oh dear









The structure of language



The sign hierarchy: Ranks

  • Signs are structured in terms of their position in a size hierarchy; the positions in the hierarchy are sometimes referred to as ranks.



Main ranks

Each sign has a structure ( internal/ external) and a semiotic relation ( function and realisation)

  • Dialogue

  • monologue/ text

  • sentence

  • word

  • morpheme

  • phoneme







SIGN rank

Internal Structure

External Structure

Interpretation

Realisation

Dialogue

Turns, texts

Social interaction

Communication

Prosody, gesture

Text

Sentences

Components of dialogues

Speech acts

Prosody, gesture

Sentence

Phrases, words

Parts of narrative, argumentative, etc texts

Propositions

Prosody, rhythm

Word

Stems, affixes

Functional parts of sentences

Complex states, properties, events, ...

Phonemes, word prosody

Morpheme

Phonemes, syllables

Parts of words

Simple states, properties, events, ...

 

Phoneme

Distinctive features

Syllables

Encoding of morphemes into sounds

Phonetic segments, allophones of phonemes



Distinctive features: for example voicing or nasality

Encoding: the meaning of a morpheme

Prosody: speech melody, rhythm, accentuation, ...





Text structure

News homepage

  • the hole page consists of a text structure

  • the smaller articles and links ( texts) embedded in the document are texts as text parts







Structure and Constitutive Relations





Constitutive Relations



Structural relations

  • Syntagmatic relations ( „glue“, combinatory relations which create larger signs (and their realisations and interpretations) from smaller signs (and their realisations and interpretations)

  • Paradigmatic relations ( „choice“, classificatory relations of similarity and difference between signs)



Semiotic relations

  • realisation: ( the visual appearance or acoustic representation of signs (other senses) may also be involved)

  • interpretation: the assignment of meaning to a sign





Syntagmatic relations

  • combinatory relations which create larger signs (and their realisations and interpretations) from smaller signs (and their realisations and interpretations)


  • Phonology: Consonants and vowels are glued together as core and periphery of syllables

  • Morphology: lexical morphemes and affixes are glues together into stems, stems are glued together into compound words, stems and inflections are glued together into words

  • Syntax: verbs and nouns are glued together as the subject and verb of sentences





Structures and syntagmatic relations

Syllable


rhyme

unset

nucleus

coda

s

t

r

ε

ng

θ

s





Morphological Syntagmatic Relations

STEM


Predicate

C- Stem


Verbal


Object

Day

To

day


Bath

Room


Clean

er





Syntactic Dyntagmatic relations

Sentence


predicate

Subject


verbal


object

The

Loud

smoker


Is

Being


A

nuisance



3.1.07 12:38

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