5. 12. 2006 Types of lexical information: morphology ( inflection and word formation)

 

5. 12. 2006 Types of lexical information: morphology ( inflection and word formation)



Morphology

  • structure of words

  • inflect to their environment

  • example „this person – these people“



Word formation

  • creativity how words are constructed

  • Why?

    -> new developments in science ( Finland: new handy telefone ( handy to carry/ use)

    -> German word „Handy&ldquo

  • Who?

  • Scientists

  • Engineers

  • Product branding companies

  • Poets

  • Everybody else



Branding

  • inventing new words to fit new products

  • Product branding companies

  • lexicon branding „Sausalito“ ( most famous one , „Pentium&ldquo

  • the language of advertising

  • swiffer“: sweep swiftly



Jabbawocky ( Alice through the looking glass by Lewis Carroll)

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.

"Beware the Jabberwock, my son!

The jaws that bite, the claws that catch!

Beware the Jubjub bird, and shun

The frumious Bandersnatch!"

He took his vorpal sword in hand:

Long time the manxome foe he sought-

So rested he by the Tumtum tree,

And stood awhile in thought.

And, as in uffish thought he stood,

The Jabberwock, with eyes of flame,

Came whiffling through the tulgey wood,

And burbled as it came!

One, two! One, two! And through and

through

The vorpal blade went snicker-snack!

He left it dead, and with its head

He went galumphing back.

"And hast thou slain the Jabberwock?

Come to my arms, my beamish boy!

A frabjous day! Callooh! Callay!"

He chortled in his joy.

'Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe;

All mimsy were the borogoves,

And the mome raths outgrabe.



  • Galumphing

  • galopping

  • triumphing

  • jumping



  • creation of new basic simple words

  • NOT putting two words together

  • only bits of words

  • onomatopeia ( snicker- snack)

  • redublication

  • repitition




  • German translation:

    • Der Zipferlake von Christian Enzensberger Verdaustig war's und glasse Wieben
    rotterten gorkicht im Gemank; Gar elump war der Pluckerwank, Und die gabben Schweisel frieben. »Hab acht vorm Zipferlak, mein Kind! Sein Maul ist beiß, sein Griff ist bohr! Vorm Fliegelflagel sieh dich vor, Dem mampfen Schnatterrind!« Er zückt' sein scharfbefifftes Schwert, Den Feind zu futzen ohne Saum; Und lehnt' sich an den Dudelbaum, Und stand da lang in sich gekehrt. In sich gekeimt, so stand er hier, Da kam verschnoff der Zipferlak Mit Flammenlefze angewackt Und gurgt in seiner Gier! Mit eins! Mit zwei! und bis aufs Bein! Die biffe Klinge ritscheropf! Trennt er vom Hals den toten Kopf, Und wichernd springt er heim. »Vom Zipferlak hast uns befreit? Komm an mein Herz, aromer Sohn! O blumer Tag! O schlusse Fron!« So kröpfte er vor Freud. Verdaustig war's und glasse Wieben rotterten gorkicht im Gemank; Gar elump war der Pluckerwank, Und die gabben Schweisel frieben.

    Morphological structure


    Branches of morphology


    morphology

    • inflection -> table – tables

    • word formation

    • derivation

    • compounding





    paradigmatic relations

    • relation of similarity and difference

    • classification

    • opposites

    • ryme ( partly similar)


    syntacmatic relations

    • composition of relation

    • combinatory

    • put small pieces together to make a big one

    • combine


    http://www.sil.org/linguistics/GlossaryOfLinguisticterms/WhatIsAParadigmaticLexicalRela.htm

    A paradigmatic lexical relation is a culturally determined pattern of association between lexical units that

    • share one or more core semantic components

    • belong to the same lexical category

    • fill the same syntactic position in a syntactic construction, and

    • have the same semantic function.

    Examples: English

     

    Here is a table showing some common paradigmatic lexical relations in English with example sets and underlying structure:

     

    •  

     

    Lexical relation

    Example set

    Underlying structure

     

    Synonym

    A "happy" synonym set: {happy, joyful, glad}

    simple set

    Scalar property

    A temperature set: {cold, cool, lukewarm, warm, hot}

    scale

    Opposite

    A social relation set: {(student, teacher), (patient, doctor)}

    set of pairs

    Generic-specific

    Animal

    • dog

      • collie

      • terrier

    • cat

      • Persian

      • Siamese

    tree

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     



    Reminder: Signs


    DIALOGUE social relation

    intonation

    TEXT →description

    intonation

    SENTENCE →state/ event

    accent, intonation

    WORD →entity, prop

    phonemes, stress




    Morphology sketch


    Inflection

    • function ( external structure)

    • marks the relation of words to their context

    • no change in the basic meaning of words

    • form ( internal structure)

    • affix ( prefix, suffix, infix), superfix, stem vowel change


    Word formation

    • function ( external structure)

    • creation of new words / parts of speech / meanings

    • in principle infinite extendability of the lexicon

    • Form (internal structure)

    • Root/morpheme creation (blending, abbreviation, ...)

    • Derivation: 1 stem + affix (prefix, suffix, infix), superfix, vowel change

    • Compounding: 2 stems, perhaps with interfix or inflection-like affix



    Internal structure of words

    • smallest word parts : morphemes

    • grammatical morphemes ( structural morpheme)

    • closed set

    • free: prepositions, auxiliary verbs, conjunctions

    • bound: affixes, suffixes

    • lexical morphemes ( content morpheme, root)

    • open set



    Morphemes and allomorphs




11.12.06 16:22

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